Following the ‘Union of the Crowns’ of 1603, Edinburgh Castle was rarely visited by the reigning monarch, but from the 1650s it grew into a significant military base. [14] The 16th-century English writer John Stow (c. 1525 – 1605), credited Ebraucus with building "the Castell of Maidens called Edenbrough" in 989 BC. Queen Margaret (who was later made a saint) died here in 1093. The summit of the rock is occupied by St Margaret's Chapel and 15th-century siege gun Mons Meg. This makes the Castle over 900 years old. In 1565, the Queen made an unpopular marriage with Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and the following year, in a small room of the Palace at Edinburgh Castle, she gave birth to their son James, who would later be King of both Scotland and England. [169], The gun is now fired from Mill's Mount Battery, on the north face of the castle, by the District Gunner from the 105th Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers). The chapel built in her honour by her son, King David I, is Edinburgh’s oldest building. The Half Moon Battery, built in the aftermath of the Lang Siege of 1573, was armed for 200 years by bronze guns known as the Seven Sisters. After the Second World War, another 50,000 names were inscribed on Rolls of Honour held within the Hall, and further names continue to be added there. During the 19th century, several schemes were put forward for rebuilding the whole castle as a Scottish Baronial style château. [148] It is one of only two medieval halls in Scotland with an original hammerbeam roof. [79] Edinburgh Castle was handed over to George Douglas of Parkhead, the Regent's brother, and the garrison were allowed to go free. As one of the most important strongholds in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh Castle was involved in many historical conflicts from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century to the Jacobite rising of 1745. [37] Malcolm's son King Edgar died here in 1107. [50] Four months later, his army secured victory at the Battle of Bannockburn. [43] From 1437, Sir William Crichton was Keeper of Edinburgh Castle,[56] and soon after became Chancellor of Scotland. In 1482, Albany marched into Scotland with Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III) and an English army. Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation. Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation. [115], In front of the castle is a long sloping forecourt known as the Esplanade. David’s Tower, some 100 feet (30 metres) in height, was built to honour King David II, who died in the castle in 1371, but was substantially destroyed in a siege 200 years later. [37] Any buildings or defences would probably have been of timber,[40] although two stone buildings are documented as having existed in the 12th century.