The number of lictors in attendance upon a magistrate was an overt indication of the degree of imperium. In the late spring Augustus’ remorse over Agrippa Postumus is told with varying levels of detail by Pliny 7150, Plutarch in his essay on talkativeness (although referring to a Fulvius rather than a Fabius), Dio 56 30, and Tac Ann 15. “great and important city” Cic Phil 11 26. another letter from Atia The implication when App 39–10 and Nic 16 are compared suggests that Atia wrote with the immediate news and then followed up with a second letter from her and Philippus; but the references could be to the same letter. It has been suggested See John Buchan, Augustus (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1937), p. 161. a general and overriding proconsular authority There is a dispute whether this was maius imperium proconsulare, “greater proconsular authority,” allowing him to override or give orders to governors of the senatorial provinces, or aequum imperium proconsulare, “equal proconsular authority,” which would allow him to raise matters with governors but not to command them. 1 imperium maius made is power greater that any other proconsular 2 tribunician. “Caesar was the only sober man” Suet Caes 53.

Alexander the Great’s Macedonian commanders For more on Alexander, see Green, Peter, Alexander of Macedon (London: Penguin, 1974), and on his successors the same author’s Alexander to Actium (London: Thames and Hudson, 1990). : Editions Glénat, 2004) reconstructs the entire city as it would have looked at the beginning of the fourth century A.D.; it shows (sometimes speculatively) the appearance of Augustan buildings and Rome’s general layout. Tiberius heard the news Val Max 553 and Pliny 784. The length of a legionary’s service Decided in 13 B.C. “large inconvenience of wealth” Hor Odes 3148. The ancient writers often describe accurately enough what took place, but without understanding why, and leaving out important incidents that have to be inferred. “That matter was soon” Laudatio Turiae 11, ILS. “repository of imperial secrets” Tac Ann 330. recovery came too late When rulers or heads of state die in office, raison d’état has been known to stimulate ruthless 'margin-top:12.75pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 12.0pt;margin-left:29.0pt;text-align:justify;text-indent:-14.4pt;line-height: normal'>“Some doubt remains” Suet Tib 22. ), others that his imperium as consul was sufficient. a fellow consul), by one whose imperium outranked his – that is, one of imperium maius (greater imperium), or by a tribune of the people. Some modern historians discount the historicity of this jaunt, largely on the grounds that Caesar would not be so irresponsible. Appian and Dio are the main sources. The discussion of Sextus Pompeius is indebted to Sextus Pompeius, Anton Powell and Kathryn Welch, eds. The first pope who used it in an official act and relied upon it, Leo IX, cites the "Donatio" in a letter of 1054 to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to show that the Holy See possessed both an earthly and a heavenly imperium, the royal priesthood. Maius imperium ("greater power") 2. Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23 or 24–A.D. “Whoever makes his journey” Quoted, from an unidentified play, by App 285. and the lex Aelia Sentia in A.D. 4. “Yes, that’s right, but with our hands” Plut Brut 52 3.

“Y” was employed for foreign words; “Z” appeared in the earliest Roman alphabet, but ceased to be written.

“deeply attached to his sister” Plut Ant 31 1.

It seems unlikely, though, that such a public event was invented when thousands of Romans could give it the lie. “No Latin ruler” Ernle Bradford, Cleopatra (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1971), p. 49. “remarkable neither for size” Suet Aug 72 1. “What in the world has become of Ajax?” Ibid., 86 5. the last letter “X” was the last letter for Latin words. Nicolaus was a Greek historian who flourished at the end of the first century B.C. According to Agrippa and Maecenas Pliny 745. Suetonius, who lived from c. A.D. 70 to c. 160, was one of Trajan’s and Hadrian’s secretaries, and had access to the imperial archives. “I have given plenty of hints” Ibid., 380. twelve vultures It can be argued that this story is a fiction put about by Octavian’s propagandists. “And the Alexandrians thronged” C. P. Cavafy, “Alexandrian Kings.” In Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard, trans., Collected Poems (London: The Hogarth Press, 1975). As noted in the preface, many important histories and memoirs have been lost. In doing so, he deliberately broke the law on imperium and engaged in an open act of insurrection and treason. “Here, like an utter fool” Ibid., 1582–85. A.D. 117) was one of the greatest Roman historians, but his masterpiece, the Annals, discusses the reign of Augustus only summarily, for he is primarily concerned with the period from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Nero. a general and overriding proconsular authority There is a dispute whether this was maius imperium proconsulare, “greater proconsular authority,” allowing him to override or give orders to governors of the senatorial provinces, or aequum imperium proconsulare, “equal proconsular authority,” which would allow him to raise matters with governors but not to command them. Dio’s and Plutarch’s lives of Antony are the main sources. “I did not take my father’s line” Suet Aug 70 2. still a very young man App 5133. “nothing womanly about her” Vell Pat 2742. in a Greek word. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. Some scholars believe that in 37 or perhaps 33 Antony agreed to become Cleopatra’s prince consort. “High up on the poop” Virgil Aen 8 678–81. and Caesar’s Funeral Games (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), pp. Pompey’s governorship of Spain in the fifties B.C. Dio’s and Appian’s histories of the Illyrian wars cover Augustus’ campaigning. It is possible that the poem was written after Murena’s fall, but presented as prophetic. 37, 42–43, 46. Greek and Roman Maps (London: Thames & Hudson, 1985), Dupont, Florence. Fuller, The Decisive Battles of the Ancient World and Their Influence on History, Michael Grant, Gladiators: The Bloody Truth, Peter Green (trans. “We must apply to our fellow-countrymen” Cic De Or 3137. He wrote a geographical study of the known world which contains useful economic information as well as descriptions of places. Dio gives two separate dates when Octavian was given full tribunician power or potestas, 30 and 23; he may not have accepted the offer on the first occasion, or perhaps only certain powers. Drusus had a riding accident Livy Per 142. “Antony did not win general approval” App 565. “It was really very difficult” Plut Cat Min 12. His biographies of Brutus and Mark Antony are fine pieces of work, and throw much light on the period. he used to chase German chieftains Suet Clau 14. Under which emperor were treason (maiestas) trials a serious problem? “When your organ is stiff” Hor Sat 1 2 116ff. If however, a secular ruler controls the religious hierarchy, he can use it to legitimize his own authority. The old Cambridge Ancient History, published between 1923 and 1939 by Cambridge University Press, is still worth consulting. His last seal ring showed Augustus’ head and was used by his successors. Some say that they were proconsular (cf. The right to command the force of the state, sovereignty. “wars that grow in the dark” Virg Geo 464–68.

When in the field, a curule magistrate possessing an imperium greater or equal to that of a praetor wore a sash ritually knotted on the front of his cuirass. “followers call him Caesar” Cic Att 366 (14 12). The truth? Daily Life in Ancient Rome (Oxford, Eng. Pages 3 This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 3 pages. and Dio to A.D. 4. Appian provides a detailed narrative, and Dio also covers this period. “Though bleeding and wounded” Ibid., 10 4. “about the hour of midnight” Ibid., 75 3–4. Translations of Appian’s The Civil Wars, Dio Cassius’ The Reign of Augustus, Horace’s Odes, Epistles, Epodes, and Satires, Livy’s History of Rome, Ovid’s Erotic Poems (Amores and Ars Amatoria), Poems of Exile (Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto), Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, selected lives by Plutarch, Suetonius’ Lives of the Caesars, Tacitus’ Annals, and Virgil’s Eclogues, Georgics, and Aeneid, have been published by Penguin Books, and editions of all the authors listed above, except for Macrobius and Nicolaus, are available in the original languages with facing-page English translations by the Loeb Classical Library of Harvard University Press. : Oxford University Press, 1996), Grant, Michael.

He first used potestas in 23. nobody saw anything especially scandalous When Plut Ant 36 2 speaks of “deep resentment among the Romans,” this almost certainly reflects later propaganda about Cleopatra’s evil influence over Antony.

A funerary inscription Laudatio Turiae, ILS. “He learned from actual experience” Ibid. Temples. Uploaded By lindsey.browne810. Contemporary statues and busts of him have also been used. He was declared a senator and granted the power of military command, Ottonian rule was accompanied by renewed faith in the idea of, How realistic either Charlemagne or the pope felt it to be that the people of Constantinople would ever accept the king of the Franks as their emperor, we cannot know; Alcuin speaks hopefully in his letters of an. “to seek to keep the constitution” Macr 2418.

Virgil and Horace embody the Augustan regime’s aspirations in verse. voicing God's will to the faithful) and the principatus rerum et corporum in universo mundo ("primacy over all things and bodies in the whole world"), while the Emperor wished to restore the imperium mundi, imperium (as under Roman Law) over the (now Christian) world.

This qualification could be used in a rather loose context (for example, poets used it, not necessarily writing about state officials). A man with imperium (an imperator) had, in principle, absolute authority to apply the law within the scope of his magistracy or promagistracy. 110–12. : Blackwell, 2003) (originally published in 1998 in German as Augustus und seine Zeit) is a compact, insightful study. This chapter depends mainly on Appian’s militarily astute account of the Sicilian war in Book 5 of his Civil Wars, with some support from Dio and anecdotes from Suetonius. Ovid fell foul of the authorities in a major political and sexual scandal that implicated Augustus’ granddaughter, and much of his later poetry took the form of appeals against his banishment. The Gladiators: History’s Most Deadly Sport (London: Souvenir Press, 2004), Powell, Anthony, and Kathryn Welch, eds. Appian and Dio are complemented by Plutarch, who in his life of Mark Antony covers the Parthian expedition in detail. Augustus’ signet ring These were routine actions when a Roman died: see Smith, see under funus. Also by that time he had imperium maius and was entitled to interfere where he wished. “The loftiest pines” Hor Odes 2104–8, 21–22. 10, E. B. As can be seen, dictatorial imperium was superior to consular, consular to praetorian, and praetorian to aedilician; there is some historical dispute as to whether or not praetorian imperium was superior to "equine-magisterial" imperium.